Abstract

Wild populations of nonhuman primates live in regions of sylvatic arbovirus transmission. To assess the status of arbovirus transmission in Bornean forests and the susceptibility of wild orangutans to arboviral infection, blood samples of wild orangutans, semi-captive orangutans, and humans were examined. Samples were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test for antibodies to viruses representing three families (Flaviviridae, Alphaviridae, and Bunyaviridae), including dengue-2, Japanese encephalitis, Zika, Langat, Tembusu, Sindbis, Chikungunya, and Batai viruses. Both wild and semi-captive orangutan groups as well as local human populations showed serologic evidence of arbovirus infection. The presence of neutralizing antibodies among wild orangutans strongly suggests the existence of sylvatic cycles for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and sindbis viruses in North Borneo. The present study demonstrates that orangutans are susceptible to arboviralinfections in the wild, although the impact of arboviral infections on this endangered ape remain unknown.

Tagging: new guidelines for statins, new guidelines on statins.

via: COVID-19.

The transmission methods in industrial communication networks include baseband, broadband, and carrierband. In a baseband transmission, a transmission consists of a set of signals that is applied to the transmission medium without being translated in frequency.

Types of Signal Transmission
1 Four-Wire Transmission. In four-wire transmitters, two wires are used to power the instrument, and the other two wires are used for signal transmission. 2 Two-Wire Transmission. 4 Fieldbus Transmission.

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